Sanitary fixtures are attached to the interior systems of water pipes and sewerage systems and constitute the main elements of a building’s sanitary engineering equipment.

Sanitary fixtures are installed in different areas. Bathtubs, washstands, shower sumps, traps, and bidets are installed in bathrooms, washrooms, and shower rooms. Toilet bowls, lavatory pans, and urinals of various types, whether equipped with flush tanks or taps, are installed in lavatories. Washers, sinks and drains are installed in kitchens.

Special sanitary fixtures are used in medical institutions, laboratories, bathhouses, barber shops, and beauty salons and on transportation facilities. These fixtures are made from cast iron, ceramics (faience, semiporcelain), sheet steel, nonferrous metals and alloys, or plastics. Cast-iron and steel fixtures are covered with a white or colored vitreous enamel. Ceramic fixtures are covered with glaze, and nonferrous-metal fixtures are electroplated. Sanitary fixtures are equipped with hydrants or faucets that deliver both hot and cold water. They are also equipped with siphons that have water seals to prevent polluted air from entering a room from sewerage pipes.

Plumbing fixtures include faucets, tanks, and receptacles in kitchens and bathrooms.There are many types and styles of fixtures; some are general, while others have been adapted to meet special applications, such as for hospitals, prisons, and similar institutions. Military installations usually are planned to house large numbers of personnel, and the plumbing fixtures ordinarily are installed in batteries. Instructions for installing fixtures are given either by the manufacturer or by specifications. Sometimes you may have to design and lay out a fixture or battery of fixtures. You must know what water supplies and stack sizes are needed and work these into your design.

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